1. Mud Chemicals

A dense mineral comprising barium sulfate [BaSO4]. Commonly used as a weirghting agent for all types of drilling fluids, barites are mined in many areas worldwide and shipped as ore to grinding plants in strategic locations, where API specifies grinding to a particle size of 3 to74 microns. Pure barium sulfate has a specific gravity of 4.50 g/cm3, but drilling-grade barite is expected to have a specific gravity of at least 4.20 g/cm3 to meet API specifications.
A clay mineral that is composed principally of three-layer clays, such as montmorillonite, and widely used as a mud additive for viscosity and filtration control. Commercial bentonite ores vary widely in amount and quality of the swelling clay, sodium montmorillonite. Ores of lower quality, those with more calcium-type montmorillonite, are treated during grinding by adding one or more of the following: sodium carbonate, long-chain synthetic polymers, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), starch or polyphosphates. These help make the final product meet quality specifications.
A compound with formula CaCO3 that occurs naturally as limestone. Ground and sized calcium carbonate is used to increase mud density to about 12 lbm / gal [1.44 kg/m3], and is preferable to barite because it is acid-soluble and can be dissolved with hydrochloric acid to clean up production zones. Its primary use today is as a bridging material in drill-in, completion and workover fluids. Sized calcium carbonate particles, along with polymers, control fluid loss in brines or drill-in, completion and workover fluids.
A highly soluble calcium salt of formula CaCl2 used to make drilling and workover fluids or brines with a density range from 8.33 to 11.6 lbm / gal [1.39 g/cm3] at saturation. CaCl2 can be blended with other brines, including sodium chloride [NaCl],calcium bromide [CaBr2] and zinc bromide [ZnBr2]. Emulsification of CaCl2 brine as the internal phase of oil-base or synthetic-base mud is an important use because the brine provides osmotic wellbore stability while drilling water-sensitive shale zones.
A lignosulfonate that is free from chrome, and can be used in environmentally conscious places.
A mud additive used to lower interfacial tension so that trapped gas will readily escape from mud. Mechanical degassing equipment is commonly used along with defoamer. Octyl alcohol, aluminum stearate, various glycols, silicones and sulfonated hydrocarbons are used as defoamers.
A surfactant-type mud additive intended to prevent formation shales and clays from sticking to the drilling assembly and also to prevent gumbo shale from agglomerating and plugging the annulus and flowlines. Some DDs are claimed to be mud lubricants that lessen the torque and drag of the drill string as it is rotated and moved up and down in the hole.
A mud additive for lowering torque (rotary friction) and drag (axial friction) in the wellbore and to lubricate bit bearings if not sealed
The mineral form of ferric oxide [Fe2O3]. The hematite ore used as a weighting material in drilling muds has a mica-like crystal structure that grinds to particle size suitable for use in drilling fluids. To check for potential wear, an abrasion test is usually run on hematite as a quality control pilot test.
Scavanger used to counter Hydrogen Sulphide formation in the upstream.
Hydrated Lime (Calcium Hydroxide) holds the formula Ca(OH)2 and has many Niche uses across the industry. It is more commonly used in both water treatments.
A group of sheet silicates characterized by a platy appearance and basal cleavage most common in igneous and metamorphic rocks. Several clay minerals, such as chlorite and glauconite, are closely related to the mica group.
A hydrophilic polysaccharide from the seed of the guar plant. It is a galactomannan type of saccharide that is highly dispersible into water and brines of various types and salinity. Its water solutions are non-Newtonian and also can be cross-linked by borax to give very high gel strength for suspension. Such a structure is easily broken by breakers in fracturing fluids, so it serves as a carrier for placing sand far back into fractures. It is also used as a top-hole drilling fluid. Disadvantages of using guar gum include its lack of thermal stability and sensitivity to high pH and bacterial fermentation.
Oxalic acid is an organic compound with the formula H2C2O4. It is a colourless crystalline solid that forms a colourless solution in water. Its condensed formula is HOOCCOOH, reflecting its classification as the simplestdicarboxylic acid. Its acid strength is much greater than that of acetic acid. Oxalic acid is a reducing agent
Paraformaldehyde (PFA) is the smallest polyoxymethylene, the polymerization product of formaldehyde with a typical degree of polymerization of 8–100 units.
Polyol is low toxic, versatile cloud point glycols for shale control designed for low to high salinity water level system and can be used in well with low, moderate and high formation temperature in isolation or in combination with salts and polyamines.
Another term for sodium carbonate, a chemical with the formula Na2CO3. It is called soda ash at the drilling rig and is used to treat most types of calcium ion contamination in freshwater and seawater muds. For cement contamination, sodium bicarbonate is used. Calcium ions from drilling gypsum or anhydrite, CaSO4, cause clay flocculation and polymer precipitation and lower pH.
A chemical with the formula NaHCO3. It is called bicarb at the drilling rig and is used to treat cement contamination in watermud. When cement hydrates, substantial amounts of lime, Ca(OH)2, are produced. As the cement sets, less free lime is available. When partially set cement is drilled with a water mud.
A compound with the chemical formula NaOH. It is commonly known as caustic soda and used in most water-base muds to increase and maintain pH and alkalinity. It is a hazardous material to handle because it is very caustic and gives off heat when dissolved in water. Proper training and equipment are needed to handle it safely.
Formed by dissolving silica or silicate minerals in NaOH solutions. The silicate anion, SiO4-4, is found in solutions of sodium silicate. Silicate anions form polysilicates, or colloidal silica gel. A silicate mud is a type of shale-inhibitive water base drilling fluid that contains sodium silicate or potassium silicate polymeric ions. These ions adsorb on the shale surface and form a semipermeable osmotic membrane that prevents the transport of water and ions internal to the shale structure. This physicochemical barrier helps improve wellbore stability and provides in-gauge holes through troublesome shale sections that otherwise might require a nonaqueous drilling fluid.
A small volume or pill of fluid placed in a wellbore annulus to free differentially stuck pipe. Oil-base mud is the traditional stuck-pipe spotting fluid. Speed in mixing and placing the spot is of primary importance to successfully freeing pipe. Because of concern about mud disposal, spots used offshore are either synthetic-based emulsions or benign water-base formulations. Each type is supplied as prepackaged concentrate designed for rapid access and mixing at the rig. A spot frees pipe by covering the stuck region. It presumably breaks up the filter cake, allowing the spot to migrate into cracks in the cake and between the pipe and the cake, reducing the stuck area and allowing pipe to be pulled free.
An asphaltic mud additive that has been reacted with sulfite to add anionic sulfonate groups to the complex molecular structure. Sulfonate groups make an additive water dispersible, depending on the extent of sulfonation. Such an additive is used to stabilize wellbores and as a filter-cake additive for water- and oil-base muds.
A polysaccharide secreted by the bacteria genus Xanthomonas campestris, also known as xanthan gum. XC in water muds provides non-Newtonian mud rheology, highly desirable because of the flat velocity profile it produces in annular flow, which is required for efficient cuttings lifting in lower density muds. XC polymer is anionic, with tolerance for salinity and fair tolerance for hardness ions. XC is a finely powdered material that can vary in the amount of residual bacteria debris and the ease with which it disperses into water. Temperature tolerance varies with water-phase components, but starts to degrade around 200 to 250°F [93 to 121°C]. Extreme pH or hardness are not well-tolerated by XC polymer and it is susceptible to bacterial attack.
An asphaltic mud additive that has been reacted with sulfite to add anionic sulfonate groups to the complex molecular structure. Sulfonate groups make an additive water dispersible, depending on the extent of sulfonation. Such an additive is used to stabilize wellbores and as a filter-cake additive for water- and oil-base muds.
An additive that kills bacteria. Bactericides are commonly used in water muds containing natural starches and gums that are especially vulnerable to bacterial attack. Bactericide choices are limited and care must be taken to find those that are effective yet approved by governments and by company policy. Bactericides, also called biocides, can be used to control sulfate-reducing bacteria, slime-forming bacteria, iron-oxidizing bacteria and bacteria that attacks polymers in fracture and secondary recovery fluids. In polymers, the degradation of the fluid is controlled, thus avoiding the formation of a large biomass, which could plug the formation and reduce permeability.

2. Production Chemicals

These additives get adsorbed on the metallic surface, protecting the metal surface by forming a film, giving the surface a certain level of protection.
Demulsification of water from water in oil emulsions and removal of the water economically meeting the technical requirements of the oil for further processing is a very critical operation. Demulsifier tend to act on the emulsion by breaking the bond of water and oil, resulting into separation of crude from emulsion.
These additives removes free/ emulsified oil from seprated water in oil fields.
Poly Aluminium chloride in all form, is extensively used as an industrial coagulant and Flocculent in different industries. Different grades of PAC are available for different purposes. PAC products are used in water treatment for removal of suspended solid (Turbidity) and other contaminants such as natural organic matter from surface water, Micro - organisms and colloidal particles, silt and clay are stabilized by Surface ELECTROSTATIC charges preventing the particles from coalescing. It is advantageous in water of low to moderate turbidity, possibly because of the greater charge neutralizing capacity relative to alum.
These additives are polymers designed to interfere in the wax crystallization process, thus modifying the crystal structure of the paraffin present in the crude oil. The change in the crystal shape diminishes the ability of waxy aggregates to inter grow and inter lock, resulting in lowering the pour point of the crude.
Triethylene glycol is a member of a homologous series of dihydroxy alcohols. It is a colorless, odorless and stable liquid with high viscosity and a high boiling point. Apart from its use as a raw material in the manufacture and synthesis of other products, TEG is known for its hygroscopic quality and its ability to dehumidify fluids.
Toluene reacts as a normal aromatic hydrocarbon towards electrophilic aromatic substitution. Owing to greater electron-releasing properties of the methyl group vs hydrogen, toluene is more reactive thanbenzene to electrophiles
Xylene, xylol or dimethylbenzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon mixture consisting of a benzene ring with two methyl groups at various substituted positions. The three isomers of xylene have the molecular formula C8H10, also represented by the semi-structural formula C6H4(CH3)2.
Hexamethylenetetramine or methenamine is a heterocyclic organic compound with the formula (CH2)6N4. This white crystalline compound is highly soluble in water and polar organic solvents. It has a cage-like structure similar to adamantane. It is useful in the synthesis of other chemical compounds.
Hydroquinone, also benzene-1,4-diol or quinol, is an aromatic organic compound that is a type of phenol, a derivative of benzene, having the chemical formula C6H4(OH)2. Its chemical structure, shown in the table at right, features two hydroxyl groups bonded to a benzene ring in a para position. It is a white granular solid. Substituted derivatives of this parent compound are also referred to as hydroquinones.

3. Water Injection Chemicals

A chemical agent used in some brines and completion fluids to reduce corrosion resulting from, or exacerbated by, dissolved oxygen. Oxygen scavengers capture the dissolved oxygen in a harmless chemical reaction that renders the oxygen unavailable for corrosive reactions. The use of oxygen scavengers is more critical in applications in which fluids are to be circulated in the wellbore. Additional oxygen may be dissolved during agitation at surface.
Bactericide are biocides developed to control bacteria growth in oil and gas production, processing, storage and transportation facilities, as well as in water systems specific to oil fields (produced water disposal systems and production, treatment and injection water systems). In particular, Bactericide prevent corrosion, injectivity reduction, fouling and plugging problems due to the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and thiosulfate reducing bacteria (TRB).
Mineral scale formation can be inhibited using Scale Inhibitor additives at very low concentrations. Which helps Mitigation and prevention of scale formation from either produced or co-mingled waters under certain conditions of temperature and / or pressure
Corrosion inhibitors developed to protect oil and gas production installations against internal corrosion. This includes protection of water systems specific to oil fields (produced water disposal systems and production, treatment and injection waters facilities). Shraddha offers an optimum corrosion inhibition whatever the fluid characteristics and field conditions: CO2 and/or H2S presence, low or high water salinity, top of line/gas phase corrosion, high temperature, high shear.
A chemical additive used to prevent the formation of foam during the preparation of a treatment fluid or slurries at surface. Excess foam created during the mixing process may cause handling and pumping difficulties and may interfere with the performance or quality control of the mixed fluid. Antifoam agents may also be used to break foams returned from the wellbore, following a treatment, in preparation for disposal of the fluids.
Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, the reagent used to titrate for calcium and magnesium ions (hardness ions) in water samples. It is also known as versenate or titraver.
Polyelectrolytes are polymers whose repeating units bear an electrolyte group. Polycations and polyanions are polyelectrolytes. These groups dissociate in aqueous solutions (water), making the polymers charged.

4. Water Maker Chemicals

Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye and caustic soda, is an inorganic compound. It is a white solid and highly caustic metallic base and alkali salt of sodium which is available in pellets, flakes, granules, and as prepared solutions at a number of different concentrations. Sodium hydroxide forms an approximately 50% (by weight) saturated solution with water.
An organic acid, properly called 2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid, with formula C6H8O7. Citric acid is used to reduce the pH of drilling fluids and hence for treatment of cement contamination. It also acts as a polymer stabilizer.
The simplest aldehyde, having the formula HCHO. Formaldehyde is used in aqueous solutions as a preservative. In muds, paraformaldehyde is added to protect against bacterial attack. The formaldehyde test determines the paraformaldehyde (bactericide) content of a drilling fluid by a P-alkalinity titration of a sulfite-oxidized mud filtrate.
A polymer that ionizes in solution. Charged groups strongly affect behaviour and interactions with colloidal clays, other polymers and solvents.
Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. It is composed of a sodium cation and a hypochlorite anion; it may also be viewed as the sodium salt of hypochlorous acid.
Sulfuric acid is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid.

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